SAE GRADES (Society of Automotive Engineers U.S.A.) FOR MOTOR OILS
It classifies oils exclusively by their viscosity. The degrees W (Winter) for the maximum pumping temperature and viscosity at -18º C and 100º C, and the normal degrees for its viscosity at 99º C. Each SAE number covers oils of different viscosities (0W, 5W, 10W, 20, 30, 40, 50). The tests are carried out according to the SAE J-300 standard.
SAE GRADES (Society of Automotive Engineers U.S.A.) FOR GEARS
The SAE grade scale for gear oils differs quite a bit from motor oils, although it also classifies oils exclusively by their viscosity (75W, 80W, 90, 140, 250). The tests of these oils are carried out according to the SAE J-306 standard.
API CLASSIFICATION (American Petroleum Institute)
Classifies both motor and transmission oils, according to the type of service they are intended for (this is the Third Classification published by API):
FOR GASOLINE ENGINES
- SD · 1968 – 1971 Severe Service.
- SE · 1971 – 1972 Severe Service.
- SF · 1980 Severe Service.
- SG · 1989 Injection or turbo powered.
- SH · 1992 EC (Fuel Economizer).
- SJ · 1996 EC and low pollution.
- SL · 2001 EC and low lubricant consumption.
- TC · For 2-stroke engines by mixing in air-cooled gasoline.
FOR DIESEL ENGINES
- CD · Supercharged and high sulfur diesel fuels.
- CE · Supercharged and Severe Services. SHPD.
- CF · Supercharged, Severe Services and high speed SHPD.
- CF-4 · Exceeds CE at high revs, on low sulfur diesel.
- CG-4 · Heavy duty on low sulfur diesel and hydraulic injection pumps.
- CH-4 · Exceeds CG-4 with new piston deposition and oxidation tests.
- CF-2 · For 2-stroke Diesel engines.
- GL-4 · For hypoid type gears. Severe Services
- GL-5 · For hypoid type gears. They are the most widely used in the automotive industry today. Severe Services. E.P. (Extreme Pressure).
MIL CLASSIFICATION – L (North American Military Specifications)
Issued by USAF. Due to their care and development and excellent quality, they have prevailed throughout the world and especially in the countries belonging to NATO.
CCMC CLASSIFICATION (Common Market Builders Committee)
Classifies oils according to their quality and service behavior. They are divided into three series or groups followed by a number (1, 2, 3, …) that indicate the level of protection and use:
- G · Series of Standards for Gasoline Engines.
- D · Series of standards for Heavy Diesel engines.
- PD · Series of standards for Diesel engines for passenger cars.
ACEA CLASSIFICATION (Association of European Automobile Builders)
Developed since 1996, they also establish three groups of standards, differentiating their use and quality level. In 98, all ACEA standards were improved and renamed, incorporating greater demands aimed at fuel economy:
- A · Series of Standards for Gasoline Engines.
- B · Series of standards for Diesel engines for passenger cars.
- E · Series of Standards for Heavy Diesel Engines.